The second 13th amendment that is said to have been adopted near the end of the Civil War #1 was did so when, there was already a fully ratified first 13th Amendment, and after the martial law declaration of 1863 which has never been repealed. Added to this is the US Supreme court decision of 1857 that ruled African-Americans were not US citizens. Therefore, US Negroes are NOT now or have they ever been legal US citizens. This means they could be legally resettled in Africa or, better yet, in the Atlantic coastal, English speaking areas, of Central America as President Lincoln desired. This, resettlement of Negroes, might be the time to relocate those that have slipped illegally across our borders. Laws passed after 1863 during martial law or by THE UNITED STATES corporation founded in 1871 cannot be legal.